Mint Solana NFT Using Anchor and Metaplex

29 minute read Published: 2023-08-25

In the previous article I showed you how to mint Solana NFT with the Metaplex sdk and the Solana SDK in native Rust.

In this article we will mint our NFt using anchor, which is a Solana program framework. Learn more about anchor in this link

Table of contents

Note: when reading this article a // snip or # snip comment means that code has been cut.

Environmental Set-up

You can skip this setup if you already have your environment set up properly.

For the uninitiated in Solana, we will get started by first installing the Solana Suite which is provided as a CLI suite.

sh -c "$(curl -sSfL https://release.solana.com/stable/install)"

Depending on your system, you might get an installer messaging

Please update your PATH environment variable to include the solana programs:

Follow the installer instructions and Confirm the solana suite is installed properly by running,

solana --version

We will finally install the anchor-cli which is provided by the anchor version manager. Find the guide on this official page.

Install avm using cargo,

cargo install --git https://github.com/coral-xyz/anchor avm --locked --force

Use avm to install anchor cli

avm install latest
avm use latest

confirm anchor is installed properly by running

anchor --version

At the time of writing this, here is how my environment look like, after running anchor --version && solana --version

anchor-cli 0.28.0
solana-cli 1.16.13 (src:b2a38f65; feat:3949673676, client:SolanaLabs)

Once everything is set-up properly, we can get started using the anchor cli to initialize our new anchor project with.

anchor init solana-nft-anchor

Change into your created anchor project and open it up with your preferred text editor. In our case, using vscode, we'll run

cd solana-nft-anchor
code .

The first thing we will need is to enable init_if_needed feature for anchor-lang crate. This feature allows us to create an account if it isn't created automatically for us.

cargo add anchor-lang --features=init-if-needed

We will also install the anchor-spl crate with metadata features. The anchor-spl create provides us with almost all the necessary functionality required to interact with the Token Program while the metadata feature brings into scope functionality required to interact the Metaplex's Token Metadata Program.

cargo add anchor-spl --features=metadata

Running a quick anchor build, ensures that everything is working in tandem with each other and we are not dealing with dependency conflicts.

We are now ready to start writing our anchor program to mint nfts for us. Open the programs/solana-nft-anchor/lib.rs file and it should have contents similar to this

use anchor_lang::prelude::*;

declare_id!("9TEtkW972r8AVyRmQzgyMz8GpG7WJxJ2ZUVZnjFNJgWM"); // should'nt be similar to mine

#[program]
pub mod solana_nft_anchor {
    use super::*;

    pub fn initialize(ctx: Context<Initialize>) -> Result<()> {
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct Initialize {}

If you encounter this error struct takes 0 lifetime arguments but lifetime argument was supplied expected 0 lifetime arguments, you can ignore it as it will go away as soon as we start working on our code.

We will rename Initialize to InitNFT and bring into scope the accounts we'll interact with when creating our nft in the Accounts struct.

The first account we will bring into scope will be the signer. This account the authority, fee payer for the transactions we make and signer of the transaction.


// snip

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    signer: AccountInfo<'info>
}

But how does solana parallel program execution layer(Sealevel) differentiate a signer account from a normal one? We mark it as one. There are two ways to do this, using the Signer account variant or by using anchor constraints which is what we are doing. Anchor constraints defined using #[account(<constraints>)] are built-in features to simplify common security checks, e.g mark accounts as mutable or not.

In our code snipped above, we have marked the account as a mutable account(because we are going to be mutating the account balance when paying for the transactions) and as a signer using #[account(mut, signer)]

To also note is the use of Rustdoc comment /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves. This is vital when using the AccountInfo wrapper. We will discuss this after introducing the Account wrapper in the next section.


Interacting With Token Program

To create our NFT we will need to interact with the token program and the metadata program. When working in anchor and Solana, it is required to explicitly declare all the accounts which you'll interact with.

Which bring us to the second account which we bring into scope, the Mint account. The mint account of a token contains details about the token such as mint authority, freeze authority, total supply ...etc.

Screenshot of details the mint account contains!

use anchor_spl::token::Mint;

// snip

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    signer: AccountInfo<'info>,
    #[account(
        init,
        payer = signer,
        mint::decimals = 0,
        mint::authority = signer.key(),
        mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(),
    )]
    mint: Account<'info, Mint>,
}

We have also added more constraints for our mint account. Let's go over them. The first constraint init is like "a wrapper" around the system_instruction::create_account() functions which instructs the System Program to create the account. this initialization takes place in three steps: allocate space, transfer lamports for rent and assign the account to the owning program. This is where the second constraint comes in payer = signer is used to pay the rent for the account creation. what is rent? For you to store data on Solana, you must pay a sort of deposit. This incentivizes the validators to store your data. If not paid, your data will be pruned from the blockchain. Read more here. The next set of constraints mint::decimals = 0 set the decimals of our nft token. You can't have a 0.25 NFT!. Finally we set the mint::authority = signer.key(), mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(), field to our address.

Looking at this newly added account, the declaration is different from the first account. We are now using the Account account type instead of AccountInfo.

The anchor AccountInfo type is a way to define accounts that does not implement any checks on the account being passed. We are blindly trusting the account being passed as the correct account without verifying the structure of the data or owner of the account. As such we have to also explicitly mark it as trustworthy using the rustdoc comments /// CHECK: <comment explaining why are we blindly trusting this account>.

The Account account type is a more secure way of declaring your accounts. It contains all the methods of AccountInfo, but it verifies program ownership and deserializes underlying data into the specified type. In our above, Account checks that the owner of the our mint is indeed the Token program TokenkegQfeZyiNwAJbNbGKPFXCWuBvf9Ss623VQ5DA and that the account contains all the required fields for a Mint account.

The fields contained that the Mint account contains

Note: The mint does not hold any tokens.

If the mint account does not hold your tokens then where are they stored? When creating a token on Solana, you need the Token account to hold your newly minted tokens. The token account contains fields such as

But, there is a downside with this method.

The first downside. Suppose you an NFT hoarder, having collected 1000 NFT. When your friend wants to send you an NFT from a mint which you already own, he will need to know the correct token account to send this NFT to. That means, keeping track of all those 1000 token accounts.

The second downside. Suppose you want to introduce you non-crypto native friend into NFTs. Your friend has never minted from the collection before. If you want to send him his first NFT from a collection he has never minted, your friend needs to have a token account from that mint's NFT. This makes transferring assets difficult and cumbersome. It also means that airdrop campaigns become impossible.

This is where the motivation to reduce the friction when working with solana tokens came in, which lead to spec a new way for the token account to map to the user's wallet, using the Associated Token Account.

The Associated Token Account is a PDA that is deterministically derived using the address and mint account.

Let's take the accounts required for the mint

use anchor_lang::prelude::*;
use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    token::{Mint, Token, TokenAccount},
};

// snip

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    pub signer: AccountInfo<'info>,
    #[account(
        init,
        payer = signer,
        mint::decimals = 0,
        mint::authority = signer.key(),
        mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(),
    )]
    pub mint: Account<'info, Mint>, // new
    #[account(
        init_if_needed,
        payer = signer,
        associated_token::mint = mint,
        associated_token::authority = signer,
    )]
    pub associated_token_account: Account<'info, TokenAccount>, // new

    pub token_program: Program<'info, Token>, // new
    pub associated_token_program: Program<'info, AssociatedToken>, // new
    pub system_program: Program<'info, System>, // bew
    pub rent: Sysvar<'info, Rent> // new
}

We have the accounts we will be interacting with when creating our mint and token accounts.

The mint account is defined by the Mint Account type.

We have an associated_token_account, with multiple anchor constraints. We use the init_if_needed flag to initialize this token account, if it does not exist on our wallet and to use this feature you need to defined a payer who will cover the cost associated with creating a new account. We also pass in the authority and mint as constraints, to link the mint to the token account.

I have also added a space to serve as a visual separation between the accounts and Programs. Remember(I know I sound like a broke record, but its important to remember this), everything on Solana is an account. This Programs are also accounts. The difference is that they have their executable field marked as true. Read more about Solana account model.

Anchor also provides another primitive to make working with Programs easier, We use Program to mark an account as executable. This also implements similar checks to Accounts. Meaning you can't pass in the address of a malicious program trying to pass it off as the Token Program. The IDs won't match and the programs executions will be halted.

Let's talk about the four programs.

  1. token_program - the Token program
  2. associated_token_program - handles creation of our ATA(Associated Token Account).
  3. system_program - because the associated token program might end up needing to create a new ATA, we need to pass in this program which is responsible for creating all accounts.
  4. rent - on Solana, you need to pay for space when you are storing data on the blockchain. All accounts on Solana(now) are required to be rent-exempt, that means putting down a 2-years worth of sol to store data on the chain. (not that expensive by the way). As such we need to interact with the rent program for this.

With that, we are now ready to call the instruction to create our first NFT on Solana. Let us first call the instructions to create the mint and token account. To do this we will need to interact with the Token Program. One way to do this would be to use invoke as I did in my previous article and make a cross program call into it. Using invoke is tricky because it requires you to pass in the correct number of accounts and correct accounts you are going to interact with. . You miss one account and boom, your tx fails and you get a cryptic error telling you, "program failed because you missed an account" and yet it can't tell you which account you missed 🤦. Enough of my rant.

Anchor simplifies this for us, by having a CpiContext struct which encapsulates all accounts that we need to interact with when making our CPI call. It also has already defined methods for commonly called instructions.

Let's take a look at how we can use the CpiContext to initialize a token mint. To initialize the CpiContext, call the associative function new which takes in two arguments.

  1. The external program we are cpi-ing into.
  2. Anchor defined accounts we will pass in to make the call to the external program successful. As opposed to a normal invoke invocation to an external program, using anchor defined Accounts means we will only declare the account which are vital and not all the programs we which almost alway never change.

For example, let take a look at the code to initialize a new token mint and associated token account using it.

 pub fn init_nft(ctx: Context<InitNFT>) -> Result<()> {
        // create mint account
        let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
            ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
            MintTo {
                mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
                to: ctx.accounts.associated_token_account.to_account_info(),
                authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            },
        );

        mint_to(cpi_context, 1)?;
        Ok(())
    }

As highlighted above, we first create our cpi context by calling CpiContext::new() method. We are interacting with the token program and thus we pass it in first. For the second send we will pass in a struct that contains defines the accounts we will interact with.

Here is all the code together.

use anchor_lang::prelude::*;
use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    token::{mint_to, Mint, MintTo, Token, TokenAccount},
};

declare_id!("9TEtkW972r8AVyRmQzgyMz8GpG7WJxJ2ZUVZnjFNJgWM"); // shouldn't be similar to mine

#[program]
pub mod solana_nft_anchor {

    use super::*;

    pub fn init_nft(ctx: Context<InitNFT>) -> Result<()> {
        // create mint account
        let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
            ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
            MintTo {
                mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
                to: ctx.accounts.associated_token_account.to_account_info(),
                authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            },
        );

        mint_to(cpi_context, 1)?;
        Ok(())
    }
}

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    pub signer: AccountInfo<'info>,
    #[account(
        init,
        payer = signer,
        mint::decimals = 0,
        mint::authority = signer.key(),
        mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(),
    )]
    pub mint: Account<'info, Mint>,
    #[account(
        init_if_needed,
        payer = signer,
        associated_token::mint = mint,
        associated_token::authority = signer,
    )]
    pub associated_token_account: Account<'info, TokenAccount>,

    pub token_program: Program<'info, Token>,
    pub associated_token_program: Program<'info, AssociatedToken>,
    pub system_program: Program<'info, System>,
    pub rent: Sysvar<'info, Rent>,
}

Calling this method as it is would create our nft, but what good is a monkey non fungible without the monkey image? 😂. In the next section we dive into using the Metaplex Token Metadata Program.


Interacting With Metaplex Metadata Program

Metaplex offers a collection of tools, smart contracts and more, designed to make the process of creating and launching NFTs easier.

In this guide we shall be using their Token Metadata Program to add metadata to our spl-token.

But before that, we need to understand how Metaplex works under the hood. Remember ATAs(Associated Token Account). They are part of a special type of accounts owned and controlled by a program (smart contract) known as Program Derived Accounts. Simply put, they are public keys that do not have a corresponding public key. They have various use-cases such as signing transactions, storing SOL and storing data, as used seen in ATAs. They are usually derived using the program public key and seeds which are chosen by the developer and passed into the find_program_address() function as bytes. This sha256 hash function to look for an address that is not on the ed25519 elliptic curve (addresses on the curve are keypairs). Further details about PDAs can be found here.

The Metaplex Metadata Program also uses PDAs. Like the Associated Token Program, the Metadata Program uses PDAs for the metadata account that attaches itself to the Mint Account. The metadata account is derived using the following seeds, metadata, Token Metadata Program pubkey i.e metaqbxxUerdq28cj1RbAWkYQm3ybzjb6a8bt518x1s and finally the public key of the mint account. Anchor has a different way of deriving PDAs but here is the code snippet for doing the above using a native Solana Rust program.

let metadata_seeds = &[PREFIX.as_bytes(), program_id.as_ref(), mint_pubkey.as_ref()];
let (pubkey, _) = Pubkey::find_program_address(metadata_seeds, &ID);

Now that we know how to derive the metadata account let's look at the fields that this account holds, show in the image below.

Diagram of the details contained in the Metadata Account!


key. This is the first field and it is an enum that lets Metaplex identify the 'type of metaplex account', to work with. It similar to the anchor discriminator. Why is it needed. The token program accesses different accounts such as the edition account for print editions of an NFT, the token record for programmable NFTs e.t.c. In our case for the, metadata account, this field is marked with the MetadataV1 enum variant.

Here is an exhaustive list of these markers and accounts and an explanation of what they are used for.


update_authority - address allowed to make changes to the metadata account.


mint - address of the mint account.


data - the asset data for with the token. This includes values such as the name, symbol, uri, creator royalties and the creators


primary_sale_happened - indicates whether the token has already been sold at least once.


is_mutable - indicates whether the metadata account can ever be changed.


edition_nonce - nonce used to verify the edition nonce's of printed NFTs.


token_standard - the type of token that the metadata account holds. It is an optional enum that consists of the following variants


collection - an optional struct that contains the public key of a collectionNft or None if not present.


uses - Another optional field that makes NFTs usable. Meaning you can load it with a certain amount of "uses" and use it until it has run out.

There's a proposal to deprecate it soon.


collection_details - An optional field with a V1 field that contains the number of NFTs for an NFT collection.

It's deprecated and might be removed soon


programmable_config - Also an optional field that if set, contains the address to an optional rule set account which contains constraints pertaining to the programmable non-fungible.

Enough talk, let's Buidl!!!!

In our InitNFT struct we will bring into scope the account we need to add metadata to our spl-token. These are, metadata_account to store our metadata, master_edition_account to set up the master edition NFT. We haven't talked about the master edition account. Why is it important? It proves the non-fungibility of our token. It will check if the decimals field on the mint account is indeed zero and that the supply field is set to 1. It is also useful in determining if we can make a print edition from the NFT. We will finally bring into scope the token_metadata_program which is responsible for processing the instructions to create both the accounts and instantiate them correctly with the fields we provide.

To put the above paragraphs into code, we first install a version mpl-token-metadata crate.

cargo add mpl-token-metadata@1.13.1
use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    metadata::{Metadata}, // new
    token::{mint_to, Mint, MintTo, Token, TokenAccount},
};
use mpl_token_metadata::{
    pda::{find_master_edition_account, find_metadata_account}, // new
};

// snip

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    pub signer: AccountInfo<'info>,
    #[account(
        init,
        payer = signer,
        mint::decimals = 0,
        mint::authority = signer.key(),
        mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(),
    )]
    pub mint: Account<'info, Mint>,
    #[account(
        init_if_needed,
        payer = signer,
        associated_token::mint = mint,
        associated_token::authority = signer,
    )]
    pub associated_token_account: Account<'info, TokenAccount>,
    /// CHECK - address
    #[account(
        mut,
        address=find_metadata_account(&mint.key()).0,
    )]
    pub metadata_account: AccountInfo<'info>, // new
    /// CHECK: address
    #[account(
        mut,
        address=find_master_edition_account(&mint.key()).0,
    )]
    pub master_edition_account: AccountInfo<'info>, // new

    pub token_program: Program<'info, Token>,
    pub associated_token_program: Program<'info, AssociatedToken>,
    pub token_metadata_program: Program<'info, Metadata>, // new
    pub system_program: Program<'info, System>,
    pub rent: Sysvar<'info, Rent>,
}

To make sure that the right accounts are passed in, we are using the address="" constraint to make sure that the accounts passed in are indeed the metadata and master edition account respectively. As we did before, un typed accounts should be accompanied by a rustdoc comment /// CHECK: <reason why the account is untyped> explaining why it is untyped. You might be wondering why we did not use the typed metadata Account<'info, MetadataAccount> and master edition Account<'info, MasterEditionAccount> account. That is because anchor expects those account types to be initialized beforehand.

After bringing the needed accounts and program into scope, we now need to instantiate them. The anchor-spl with metadata crate comes with a useful number of Cross Program Invocation(CPI) instructions we can use.

As we did with the mint account we will be using the CpiContext::new() method to help us make sure we have all the required accounts when making the CPI call to the metadata_program.

We will use the create_metadata_accounts_v3() to create the metadata account. It takes in five arguments,

  1. Our CpiContext struct with the required program id and accounts
  2. Our asset data aptly named as DataV2. name, symbol, uri ... are all defined here.
  3. is_mutable, a boolean determining on whether we can make changes to our metadata_account.
  4. update_authority_is_signer, a boolean on whether the update authority is going to be the signer creating this transaction.
  5. collection details, optional field containing no. of NFTs in our collection.
// snip
use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    metadata::{
        create_master_edition_v3, create_metadata_accounts_v3, CreateMasterEditionV3,
        CreateMetadataAccountsV3, Metadata, MetadataAccount,
    }, // new
    token::{mint_to, Mint, MintTo, Token, TokenAccount},
};
use mpl_token_metadata::{
    pda::{find_master_edition_account, find_metadata_account},
    state::DataV2 // new
};

// snip

pub fn init_nft(
    ctx: Context<InitNFT>,
    name: String,   // new
    symbol: String, // new
    uri: String,    // new
) -> Result<()> {
    // create mint account
    let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
        ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
        MintTo {
            mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
            to: ctx.accounts.associated_token_account.to_account_info(),
            authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
        },
    );

    mint_to(cpi_context, 1)?;

    // create metadata account
    let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
        ctx.accounts.token_metadata_program.to_account_info(),
        CreateMetadataAccountsV3 {
            metadata: ctx.accounts.metadata_account.to_account_info(),
            mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
            mint_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            update_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            payer: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            system_program: ctx.accounts.system_program.to_account_info(),
            rent: ctx.accounts.rent.to_account_info(),
        },
    );

    let data_v2 = DataV2 {
        name: name,
        symbol: symbol,
        uri: uri,
        seller_fee_basis_points: 0,
        creators: None,
        collection: None,
        uses: None,
    };

    create_metadata_accounts_v3(cpi_context, data_v2, false, true, None)?;

    Ok(())
}

Because the DataV2 struct need to take in the asset data, we have changed the definition of our init_nft function to also include the name, symbol and uri parameter which we are passing as our asset data. This is also the same way we would get the other fields in the DataV2 struct such as the seller_fee_basis_points, creators if there were more than one ... e.t.c.

And finally we finish off our program by creating the master edition account, by invoking the create_master_edition_v3 instruction, which takes in the accounts needed to initialize the master edition account and an optional max_supply argument. The max_supply takes in the maximum number of editions that can be printed from this NFT. We do not want to allow print editions to be made from our NFT and we set it to None.

use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    metadata::{
        create_master_edition_v3, create_metadata_accounts_v3, CreateMasterEditionV3,
        CreateMetadataAccountsV3, Metadata,
    }, // new
    token::{mint_to, Mint, MintTo, Token, TokenAccount},
};

// snip

//create master edition account
let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
    ctx.accounts.token_metadata_program.to_account_info(),
    CreateMasterEditionV3 {
        edition: ctx.accounts.master_edition_account.to_account_info(),
        mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
        update_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
        mint_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
        payer: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
        metadata: ctx.accounts.metadata_account.to_account_info(),
        token_program: ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
        system_program: ctx.accounts.system_program.to_account_info(),
        rent: ctx.accounts.rent.to_account_info(),
    },
);

create_master_edition_v3(cpi_context, None)?;

In ~115 LOC we have written a program that mints an NFT for us on-chain. Here is what the full finished program looks like.

use anchor_lang::prelude::*;
use anchor_spl::{
    associated_token::AssociatedToken,
    metadata::{
        create_master_edition_v3, create_metadata_accounts_v3, CreateMasterEditionV3,
        CreateMetadataAccountsV3, Metadata,
    },
    token::{mint_to, Mint, MintTo, Token, TokenAccount},
};
use mpl_token_metadata::{
    pda::{find_master_edition_account, find_metadata_account},
    state::DataV2,
};

declare_id!("9TEtkW972r8AVyRmQzgyMz8GpG7WJxJ2ZUVZnjFNJgWM"); // shouldn't be similar to mine

#[program]
pub mod solana_nft_anchor {

    use super::*;

    pub fn init_nft(
        ctx: Context<InitNFT>,
        name: String,
        symbol: String,
        uri: String,
    ) -> Result<()> {
        // create mint account
        let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
            ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
            MintTo {
                mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
                to: ctx.accounts.associated_token_account.to_account_info(),
                authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
            },
        );

        mint_to(cpi_context, 1)?;

        // create metadata account
        let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
            ctx.accounts.token_metadata_program.to_account_info(),
            CreateMetadataAccountsV3 {
                metadata: ctx.accounts.metadata_account.to_account_info(),
                mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
                mint_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                update_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                payer: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                system_program: ctx.accounts.system_program.to_account_info(),
                rent: ctx.accounts.rent.to_account_info(),
            },
        );

        let data_v2 = DataV2 {
            name: name,
            symbol: symbol,
            uri: uri,
            seller_fee_basis_points: 0,
            creators: None,
            collection: None,
            uses: None,
        };

        create_metadata_accounts_v3(cpi_context, data_v2, false, true, None)?;

        //create master edition account
        let cpi_context = CpiContext::new(
            ctx.accounts.token_metadata_program.to_account_info(),
            CreateMasterEditionV3 {
                edition: ctx.accounts.master_edition_account.to_account_info(),
                mint: ctx.accounts.mint.to_account_info(),
                update_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                mint_authority: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                payer: ctx.accounts.signer.to_account_info(),
                metadata: ctx.accounts.metadata_account.to_account_info(),
                token_program: ctx.accounts.token_program.to_account_info(),
                system_program: ctx.accounts.system_program.to_account_info(),
                rent: ctx.accounts.rent.to_account_info(),
            },
        );

        create_master_edition_v3(cpi_context, None)?;

        Ok(())
    }
}

#[derive(Accounts)]
pub struct InitNFT<'info> {
    /// CHECK: ok, we are passing in this account ourselves
    #[account(mut, signer)]
    pub signer: AccountInfo<'info>,
    #[account(
        init,
        payer = signer,
        mint::decimals = 0,
        mint::authority = signer.key(),
        mint::freeze_authority = signer.key(),
    )]
    pub mint: Account<'info, Mint>,
    #[account(
        init_if_needed,
        payer = signer,
        associated_token::mint = mint,
        associated_token::authority = signer
    )]
    pub associated_token_account: Account<'info, TokenAccount>,
    /// CHECK - address
    #[account(
        mut,
        address=find_metadata_account(&mint.key()).0,
    )]
    pub metadata_account: AccountInfo<'info>,
    /// CHECK: address
    #[account(
        mut,
        address=find_master_edition_account(&mint.key()).0,
    )]
    pub master_edition_account: AccountInfo<'info>,

    pub token_program: Program<'info, Token>,
    pub associated_token_program: Program<'info, AssociatedToken>,
    pub token_metadata_program: Program<'info, Metadata>,
    pub system_program: Program<'info, System>,
    pub rent: Sysvar<'info, Rent>,
}

To finish off the program side of development, we are going to build and deploy our program.

Let's first configure our Anchor.toml, to deploy to Devnet when we run the deploy command.

To do this we will change the cluster to point to devnet

# snip

[provider]
cluster = "devnet"
# snip

We are now ready to deploy to devnet. Go ahead and build your program and deploy using the following commands.

anchor build

anchor deploy

If commands run accordingly, you should be greeted with a Deploy success message.

Calling Our Program from TS client

For our client we will be using umi from Metaplex. Umi is a "Solana Framework for JavaScript clients".

Let's install the packages we will be using. Umi will help us in deriving the pda's for the metadata account and master edition while spl token will help us when deriving the associated token account.

yarn add @solana/spl-token @metaplex-foundation/mpl-token-metadata @metaplex-foundation/umi @metaplex-foundation/umi-bundle-defaults @metaplex-foundation/umi-signer-wallet-adapters

Once installed, we will go ahead and create a new Umi instance using the createUmi function and register our local provider wallet with the token metadata program with umi's interfaces.

// snip

const provider = anchor.AnchorProvider.env();
anchor.setProvider(provider);
const program = anchor.workspace.SolanaNftAnchor as Program<SolanaNftAnchor>;

const signer = provider.wallet;

const umi = createUmi("https://api.devnet.solana.com")
	.use(walletAdapterIdentity(signer))
	.use(mplTokenMetadata());

//snip

With our config set up, let work on calling our init_nft method. We will need to derive our associated token account, metadata account and master edition. Operations which are made easy with the helper functions from the packages we just installed.

Note: the @solana/web3.js PublicKey interface is not compatible with umi's publicKey interface so be sure to wrap the public key values with it should an umi functions require it as input.

// generate the mint account
const mint = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate();

// Derive the associated token address account for the mint
const associatedTokenAccount = await getAssociatedTokenAddress(
	mint.publicKey,
	signer.publicKey
);

// derive the metadata account
let metadataAccount = findMetadataPda(umi, {
	mint: publicKey(mint.publicKey),
})[0];

//derive the master edition pda
let masterEditionAccount = findMasterEditionPda(umi, {
	mint: publicKey(mint.publicKey),
})[0];

Once we have derived our public keys, we will also need the asset data, i.e the name, symbol and uri. We will not do metadata upload in this tutorial but in a separate umi guide later.

Right now we will utilize the data that I use for the previous tutorial.

import * as anchor from "@coral-xyz/anchor";
import { Program } from "@coral-xyz/anchor";
import { SolanaNftAnchor } from "../target/types/solana_nft_anchor";
import { walletAdapterIdentity } from "@metaplex-foundation/umi-signer-wallet-adapters";
import { getAssociatedTokenAddress } from "@solana/spl-token";
import {
	findMasterEditionPda,
	findMetadataPda,
	mplTokenMetadata,
	MPL_TOKEN_METADATA_PROGRAM_ID,
} from "@metaplex-foundation/mpl-token-metadata";
import { createUmi } from "@metaplex-foundation/umi-bundle-defaults";
import { publicKey } from "@metaplex-foundation/umi";

import {
	TOKEN_PROGRAM_ID,
	ASSOCIATED_TOKEN_PROGRAM_ID,
} from "@solana/spl-token";

describe("solana-nft-anchor", async () => {
	// Configured the client to use the devnet cluster.
	const provider = anchor.AnchorProvider.env();
	anchor.setProvider(provider);
	const program = anchor.workspace
		.SolanaNftAnchor as Program<SolanaNftAnchor>;

	const signer = provider.wallet;

	const umi = createUmi("https://api.devnet.solana.com")
		.use(walletAdapterIdentity(signer))
		.use(mplTokenMetadata());

	const mint = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate();

	// Derive the associated token address account for the mint
	const associatedTokenAccount = await getAssociatedTokenAddress(
		mint.publicKey,
		signer.publicKey
	);

	// derive the metadata account
	let metadataAccount = findMetadataPda(umi, {
		mint: publicKey(mint.publicKey),
	})[0];

	//derive the master edition pda
	let masterEditionAccount = findMasterEditionPda(umi, {
		mint: publicKey(mint.publicKey),
	})[0];

	const metadata = {
		name: "Kobeni",
		symbol: "kBN",
		uri: "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/687c/solana-nft-native-client/main/metadata.json",
	};

	it("mints nft!", async () => {
		const tx = await program.methods
			.initNft(metadata.name, metadata.symbol, metadata.uri)
			.accounts({
				signer: provider.publicKey,
				mint: mint.publicKey,
				associatedTokenAccount,
				metadataAccount,
				masterEditionAccount,
				tokenProgram: TOKEN_PROGRAM_ID,
				associatedTokenProgram: ASSOCIATED_TOKEN_PROGRAM_ID,
				tokenMetadataProgram: MPL_TOKEN_METADATA_PROGRAM_ID,
				systemProgram: anchor.web3.SystemProgram.programId,
				rent: anchor.web3.SYSVAR_RENT_PUBKEY,
			})
			.signers([mint])
			.rpc();

		console.log(
			`mint nft tx: https://explorer.solana.com/tx/${tx}?cluster=devnet`
		);
		console.log(
			`minted nft: https://explorer.solana.com/address/${mint.publicKey}?cluster=devnet`
		);
	});
});

Let go ahead and run the test to mint our nft.

anchor test

Running anchor test will build and deploy your program first before running the ts client first.

To skip this process you can add the --skip-build and --skip-deploy flags. I prefer to use this since I already build and deployed the program at the previous stage.

anchor test --skip-build --skip-deploy

After running the command above, you should be greeted with your newly minted NFT tx.

Clicking on the transaction link to the explorer, under the Token balances, you should have an change of +1. Screenshot of the mint nft tx!

To view the minted NFT, open the minted nft link and you should have something similar to this.

Screenshot of the minted nft on the solana explorer!